Dr Abel Scribe PhD

4.0 Chicago Bibliographies

Bibliographies complement endnotes or footnotes by replicating those sources in alphabetical order. They may also include additional sources that were useful in developing your topic but were not cited in your text, and not all cited material need be included.

CMS Basic for Research Papers: Contents

1.0 Text Style Rules
  • 1.1 Abbreviations/Acronyms
  • 1.2 Capitalization (Titles)
  • 1.3 Compound Words
  • 1.4 Emphasis (Italics/Quotes)
  • 1.5 Numbers & Dates
2.0 Page Layout
  • 2.1 Title & Text Pages
  • 2.2 Headings & Lists
  • 2.3 Quotations
  • 2.4 Tables & Figures
3.0 Endnotes/Footnotes
  • 3.1 Page Layout
  • 3.2 Books & References
  • 3.3 Articles in Periodicals
  • 3.4 Documents & Reports

4.1 Page Layout for Bibliographies

Chicago Bibliography
Figure 8. Chicago Bibliography Style. The style is similar to the footnote/endnote format but with a more formal cast. Each element in a reference—author, title, publication information—ends with a period, not a comma. The lead author's name goes Last Name, First, and the references are listed alphabetically.

Start a new page for bibliographies, with the title Bibliography formatted as a Level 1 heading similar to the first page title, centered at the top of the page. References are block spaced—single-spaced within each reference, double-spaced between references.

General Rules

  • Authors. Give authors' and editors' full names, the lead author last name first, other names in normal order. If there is no author use the title. List up to three co-authors to a work; four or more the first followed by et al. or and others (Turabian 2013, 147).
  • Titles. All titles require heading capitalization. Titles of journal papers, chapters in edited volumes or anthologies, reports, and newspaper articles are placed within quotes. Titles of books and the names of journals are placed in italics.
  • Date. Chicago style now prefers full dates American style, in month day, year format.
  • Hanging indent. The first line of a reference starts flush with the left margin, subsequent lines are indented one-half inch, the standard indent for paragraphs.
  • Internet sources are referenced like their print counterparts, with an added URL, or preferably a digital object identifier.
  • Digital Object Identifier. The Turabian manual is out of date in the manner of referencing DOIs by placing the DOI in a URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi#. The DOI is embedded in the document which can be retrieved, sometimes from multiple sources, by simply searching for the DOI on the Internet. That's why they were invented.
  • Electronic sources on media other than the Internet require a note to that effect, for example, CD ROM, DVD, video tape, film, and so on.
  • Access date. The Turabian manual wants you to include the date you last accessed an online source in a reference. "If the source is revised or deleted, readers (and your instructor) will want to know when the source was last available to you" (Turabian 2013, 141). Why?

    The standard of scholarship among peer-reviewed research journals requires all online sources to be active and verified before publication. If a source cannot be found it is not a source and the reference must be deleted. Listing a date you claim to have accessed a source does not confer legitimacy to your note or reference. This practice makes no sense and will likely be abandoned in future manuals.

Inclusive Page Numbers.

Chicago style has an elaborate scheme for cutting digits when a range of page numbers is referenced (Turabian 2013, 325).
Inclusive Page Number Scheme

Quality of Sources

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association considers only peer-reviewed articles and other peer-reviewed documents as credible sources for research (2009, 205). Other sources, such as technical reports, even census data, is part of a world of "Gray Literature." There is even considerable doubt about the accuracy census data since much of the information is provided without verification. Something to keep in mind in this era of "Fake News." Don't build your work on blogs, stray reports on the Internet, or websites.

4.2 Books - Compilations - Reference Works (TOP)

One to Three Authors - Reprint

Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. 1958. Reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture.
London: Sage, 1977.

Hacker, Diana. Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.
Accessed October 8, 1998, http://www.bedfordbooks.com.

Four to Ten Authors

Schuman, Howard, et al. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations. Rev. ed.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Corporate Author

Congressional Budget Office, Changes in Living Arrangements of the Elderly: 1960-2030.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.

Editor as Author

Friedman, Howard S., ed. Personality and Disease. New York: Wiley, 1990.

Anthology - Compilation - Edited Book

Whitman, Walt. Complete Poetry and Selected Prose, edited by James E. Miller, Jr. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1959.

Note: The Turabian manual wants you leave off the word Company and similar terms in references.

Hemingway, Ernest. "The Big Two-Hearted River." In The Nick Adams Stories, edited by Philip
Young, 158-80. New York: Bantam Books, 1973.

Edition Other Than the First

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1970.


Kazantzakis, Nikos. Zorba the Greek, translated by Carl Wildman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1952.

Reference Works

Alwin, Duane F. "Equity Theory." In Encyclopedia of Sociology, edited by Edgar F. Borgatta and
Marie L. Borgatta, 563-75. New York: Macmillan, 1992.

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

Bergman, Peter G. "relativity." In Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed., vol. 26, 501-508. Chicago:
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1998.

Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, ver. 2.0, s.v. "genetic engineering," CD-ROM. Carlsbad, CA: Compton's
NewMedia, Inc., 1994.

Note: The s.v. in this reference stands for sub verbo (Latin for "under the word"). This is new.

Britannica On-line, 1995 ed., s.v. "stock market crash in 1929," accessed July 1, 1998, http://www.eb.com/.

Statistical Abstract

Bureau of the Census. "Higher Education Price Indexes: 1965-1991." In Statistical Abstract of the United
States: 1993. 113th ed., table 277. Washington, DC: US GPO, 1993.

4.3 Journals - Magazines - Newspapers (TOP)

Annual Review

Kelly, John D., and Martha Kaplan. "Ritual Studies." Annual Review of Research in Anthropology
19 (1990): 119-50.

Journal Article (Paged by Volume)

Dietler, Michael. "'Our Ancestors the Gauls': Archaeology, Ethnic Nationalism, and the Manipulation
of Celtic Identity in Modern Europe." American Anthropologist 96 (1994): 584-605.

Journal Article (Two Authors, DOI)

Makary, Martin A., and Michael Daniel. "Medical Error—The Third Leading Cause of Death in the US."
BMJ 353 (May 3, 2016): 5 pp. Accessed May 5, 2016. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i2139.

Note: The Turabian manual is confused about the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). These are embedded in the document, not necessarily hosted on a website. A search engine will locate the document for you without a URL. Nonetheless, the Turabian manual wants you to write: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2139. The document may actually be hosted on the British Medical Journal's (BMJ) server or elsewhere, the URL is irrelevant.

Journal Article (More Than Four Authors, DOI)

Meinshausen, Malte, et al. "Greenhouse-Gas Emission Targets for Limiting Global Warming to 2 ºC."
Nature 458 (April 30, 2009): 1158-63. Accessed February 16, 2013. doi: 10.1038/nature08017.

Journal Article (Paged by Volume, URL)

Wheelis, Mark. "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa." Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, no. 9
(September 2002): 971–975. Accessed December 9, 2003. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol8no9.

Journal Paged by Issue

Dumper, Michael. "Israeli Settlement in the Old City of Jerusalem." Journal of Palestine Studies 21, no. 4
(1992): 32-53.

Note: Most journals page continuously through a volume, each new issue starting where the last issue left off. Other journals start each new issue at page one; unless you know the issue number you can't find the source. In the example above the volume is 21, issue number is 4.

Magazine Article (No Author)

"Taking the Business Cycle's Pulse." Economist, October 28, 1995, 89-90.

Magazine Article (Online, Print)

Smith, Noah. "The American Debt Trap." Bloomberg, January 20, 2017. Accessed January 20, 2017.

Jabr, Ferris. "Why Your Brain Needs More Downtime." Scientific American, October 15, 2013.

Newspaper Articles (Book Review, No Author, Online)

Limerick, Patricia Nelson. "Dancing with Professors: The Trouble with Academic Prose." New York
Times Book Review, October 31, 1993, 3, 23-24.

Camhi, Leslie. "Art of the City," review of New York Modern: The Arts and the City, by William B. Scott
and Peter M. Rutkoff. Village Voice, June 15, 1999, 154.

"Feds Close Vail Logging Road." Colorado Daily [Boulder], July 27-29, 1999, 2.

Markoff, John. "Voluntary Rules Proposed to Help Insure Privacy for Internet Users." New York Times,
June 5, 1996. Accessed June 10, 1996. http://www.nytimes.com/.../yo5dat.htm.

4.4 Documents & Reports (TOP)

Conference Papers

Kuroda, S-Y. "Whether We Agree or Not: A Comparative Syntax of English and Japanese." In Papers
from the Second International Workshop on Japanese Syntax, edited by William J. Poser,
103-43. Stanford, CA: CSLI, 1988.

McFadden, Maggie. "Weaving the Cloth of International Sisterhood." Paper presented at the National
Women's Studies Association conference, Minneapolis, June 1988.

PhD Dissertation

McNeary, Stephen A. "Where Fire Came Down: Social and Economic Life of the Niska." PhD
diss., Bryn Mawr College, 1976.

Research Report

Fry, Richard. "A Record One-in-Five Households Now Owe Student Loan Debt." Washington, D.C:
Pew Social & Demographic Trends, September 26, 2012.

Morrissey, Elizabeth. "Work and Poverty in Metro and Nonmetro Areas." Rural Development
Research Report No. 81. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1991.


"CMS Basic: Chicago Style for Research Papers." Dr Abel Scribe PhD, 2017. Accessed April 1, 2018.

"Documenting Sources from the World Wide Web." Modern Language Association, February 3, 2000.
Accessed February 17, 2000. http://www.mla.org/style/sources.htm.

"Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format." Updated to 5th ed. Purdue University Online
Writing Lab, 2003. Accessed February 18, 2003. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/ research/r_apa.html.

Note: The Turabian manual suggests a generic format for referencing websites, albeit with some confusion. This takes the form: Author (if there is one), "Website Title," Publisher, date, access date, URL. Blogs, however, follow this form: Author, "Blog Topic," Title of Blog in Italics, date, access date, URL. It's not clear if the reference to the website above should have Purdue University Online Writing Lab in italics.

Computer Program

Anselin, Luc. SPACESTAT: A Program for the Statistical Analysis of Spatial Data. Computer program.
Santa Barbara, CA: National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, University of California, 1993.