Dr Abel Scribe PhD

3.0 Chicago Endnotes & Footnotes

Chicago Notes are arranged in the order cited. Notes are commonly single spaced. To indicate a citation in your text place a superscript number after punctuation, preferably at the end of a sentence, one citation only per sentence. Multiple references may be combined in the endnote or footnote. Do not note or cite headings, subheadings, or titles. For an illustration go to the Page Layout page.

CMS Basic for Research Papers: Contents

1.0 Text Style Rules
  • 1.1 Abbreviations/Acronyms
  • 1.2 Capitalization (Titles)
  • 1.3 Compound Words
  • 1.4 Emphasis (Italics/Quotes)
  • 1.5 Numbers & Dates
2.0 Page Layout
  • 2.1 Title & Text Pages
  • 2.2 Headings & Lists
  • 2.3 Quotations
  • 2.4 Tables & Figures
4.0 Bibliographies
  • 4.1 Page Layout
  • 4.2 Books & References
  • 4.3 Articles in Periodicals
  • 4.4 Documents & Reports

3.1 Page Layout for Endnotes

Figure 7. Chicago Style Endnotes. This format is the same for footnotes. The Turabian manual does not encourage the use of superscript numbers before a footnote and definitely not before an endnote. Word processors may disagree.

Start a new page for endnotes, with the title Notes formatted as a Level 1 heading similar to the first page title, centered at the top of the page. Notes are block spaced—single-spaced within each note, double-spaced between notes.

Endnotes are listed in the order cited in the text.

Format notes starting with the number corresponding to the citation in the text. The Turabian manual frowns on the use of superscript numbers before endnotes and footnotes—use regular text numbers—but tolerates them (2013, 156). Indent the first line, followed by the number.

General Rules

  • Authors. Give authors' and editors' full names in normal order. If there is no author use the title. List up to three co-authors to a work; four or more the first followed by et al. or and others (Turabian 2013, 147).
  • Multiple works by the same author in different notes list the full reference. With a subsequent citation to the same source give the lead author, a short title. and page: 2. Turabian, A Manual for Writers, 123.
  • Titles. All titles require heading capitalization. Titles of journal papers, chapters in edited volumes or anthologies, reports, and newspaper articles are placed within quotes. Titles of books and the names of journals are placed in italics.
  • Date. Chicago style now prefers full dates American style, in month day, year format.
  • Indent notes like a paragraph.
  • Internet sources are referenced like their print counterparts, with an added URL, or preferably a digital object identifier.
  • Digital Object Identifier. The Turabian manual is out of date in the manner of referencing DOIs by placing the DOI in a URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi#. The DOI is embedded in the document which can be retrieved, sometimes from multiple sources, by simply searching for the DOI on the Internet. That's why they were invented.
  • Electronic sources on media other than the Internet require a note to that effect, for example, CD ROM, DVD, video tape, film, and so on.
  • Access date. The Turabian manual wants you to include the date you last accessed an online source in a reference. "If the source is revised or deleted, readers (and your instructor) will want to know when the source was last available to you" (Turabian 2013, 141). Why?

    The standard of scholarship among peer-reviewed research journals requires all online sources to be active and verified before publication. If a source cannot be found it is not a source and the reference must be deleted. Listing a date you claim to have accessed a source does not confer legitimacy to your note or reference. This practice makes no sense and will likely be abandoned in future manuals.

Inclusive Page Numbers.

Chicago style has an elaborate scheme for cutting digits when a range of page numbers is referenced (Turabian 2013, 325).
Inclusive Page Number Scheme

Quality of Sources

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association considers only peer-reviewed articles and other peer-reviewed documents as credible sources for research (2009, 205). Other sources, such as technical reports, even census data, is part of a world of "Gray Literature." There is even considerable doubt about the accuracy census data since much of the information is provided without verification. Something to keep in mind in this era of "Fake News." Don't build your work on blogs, stray reports on the Internet, or websites.

3.2 Books - Compilations - Reference Works (TOP)

One to Three Authors - Reprint

1. Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron, Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture (London:
Sage, 1977), 123-34.

2. Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition (1958; repr., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 123.

3. Diana Hacker, Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age (Boston: Bedford Books, 1997), 123-24,
accessed October 8, 1998, http://www.bedfordbooks.com.

4. Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, The Craft of Research (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1995), 123.

Four to Ten Authors

#. Howard Schuman and others, Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations, rev. ed.
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).

Corporate Author

#. Congressional Budget Office, Changes in Living Arrangements of the Elderly: 1960-2030 (Washington, DC:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988).

Editor as Author

#. Howard S. Friedman, ed., Personality and Disease (New York: Wiley, 1990).

Anthology - Compilation - Edited Book

#. Walt Whitman, Complete Poetry and Selected Prose, ed., James E. Miller, Jr. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1959).

#. The Turabian manual wants you leave off the word Company and similar terms in notes and references.
This is really pretty petty, get a life!

#. Ernest Hemingway, "The Big Two-Hearted River," in The Nick Adams Stories, ed., Philip Young (New York:
Bantam Books, 1973), 159-80.

Edition Other Than the First

#. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970).


#. Nikos Kazantzakis, Zorba the Greek, trans., Carl Wildman (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1952).

Reference Works

#. Duane F. Alwin, "Equity Theory," in Encyclopedia of Sociology, eds., Edgar F. Borgatta and Marie L.
Borgatta (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 563-75.

#. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3rd ed. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1992).

#. Peter G. Bergman, "Relativity," in Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., vol. 26 (Chicago: Encyclopedia
Britannica, 1998), 501-508.

#. Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, ver. 2.0, s.v. "Genetic Engineering," CD-ROM (Carlsbad, CA: Compton's
NewMedia, Inc., 1994).

#. The s.v. in this note stands for sub verbo (Latin for "under the word"). This is new.

#. Britannica On-line, 1995 ed., s.v. "stock market crash in 1929," accessed July 1, 1998, http://www.eb.com/.

Statistical Abstract

#. Bureau of the Census, "Higher Education Price Indexes: 1965-1991," in Statistical Abstract of the
United States: 1993, 113th ed. (Washington, DC: US GPO, 1993), table 277.

3.3 Journals - Magazines - Newspapers (TOP)

Annual Review

#. John D. Kelly and Martha Kaplan, "Ritual Studies," Annual Review of Research in Anthropology
19 (1990): 119-50.

Journal Article (Paged by Volume)

#. Michael Dietler, "'Our Ancestors the Gauls': Archaeology, Ethnic Nationalism, and the Manipulation of Celtic
Identity in Modern Europe," American Anthropologist 96 (1994): 584-605.

Journal Article (Two Authors, DOI)

#. Martin A Makary and Michael Daniel, "Medical Error—The Third Leading Cause of Death in the US,"
BMJ 353 (May 3, 2016), accessed May 5, 2016, doi: 10.1136/bmj.i2139.

#. The Turabian manual is confused about the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). These are embedded in the
document, not necessarily hosted on a website. A search engine will locate the document for you without a URL.
Nonetheless, the Turabian manual wants you to write: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2139. The document may
actually be hosted on the British Medical Journal's (BMJ) server or elsewhere, the URL is irrelevant.

Journal Article (More Than Four Authors, DOI)

#. Malte Meinshausen, et al., "Greenhouse-Gas Emission Targets for Limiting Global Warming to 2 ºC,"
Nature 458 (April 30, 2009): 1158-63, accessed February 16, 2013, doi: 10.1038/nature08017.

Journal Article (Paged by Volume, URL)

#. Mark Wheelis, "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa," Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, no. 9
(September 2002): 971–975, accessed December 9, 2003, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol8no9.

Journal Paged by Issue

#. Michael Dumper, "Israeli Settlement in the Old City of Jerusalem," Journal of Palestine Studies 21, no. 4
(1992): 32-53.

#. Most journals page continuously through a volume, each new issue starting where the last issue left off.
Other journals start each new issue at page one; unless you know the issue number you can't find the source.
In the example above the volume is 21, issue number is 4.

Magazine Article (No Author)

#. "Taking the Business Cycle's Pulse," Economist, October 28, 1995, 89-90.

Magazine Article (Online, Print)

#. Noah Smith, "The American Debt Trap," Bloomberg, January 20, 2017, accessed January 20, 2017,

#. Ferris Jabr, "Why Your Brain Needs More Downtime," Scientific American, October 15, 2013.

Newspaper Articles (Book Review, No Author, Online)

#. Patricia Nelson Limerick, "Dancing with Professors: The Trouble with Academic Prose," New York Times
Book Review, October 31, 1993, 3, 23-24.

#. Leslie Camhi, "Art of the City," review of New York Modern: The Arts and the City, by William B. Scott,
and Peter M. Rutkoff, Village Voice, June 15, 1999, 154.

#. "Feds Close Vail Logging Road," Colorado Daily [Boulder], July 27-29, 1999, 2.

#. John Markoff, "Voluntary Rules Proposed to Help Insure Privacy for Internet Users," New York Times,
June 5, 1996, accessed June 10, 1996, http://www.nytimes.com/.../yo5dat.htm.

3.4 Documents & Reports (TOP)

Conference Papers

#. S-Y. Kuroda, "Whether We Agree or Not: A Comparative Syntax of English and Japanese," in Papers
from the Second International Workshop on Japanese Syntax, ed., William J. Poser (Stanford, CA: CSLI, 1988), 103-43.

#. Maggie McFadden, "Weaving the Cloth of International Sisterhood" (paper presented at the National
Women's Studies Association conference, Minneapolis, June 1988).

PhD Dissertation

#. Stephen A. McNeary, "Where Fire Came Down: Social and Economic Life of the Niska" (doctoral
dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, 1976).

Research Report

#. Richard Fry, "A Record One-in-Five Households Now Owe Student Loan Debt" (Washington, D.C:
Pew Social & Demographic Trends, September 26, 2012).

#. Elizabeth Morrissey, "Work and Poverty in Metro and Nonmetro Areas," Rural Development
Research Report No. 81 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1991).


#. "CMS Basic: Chicago Style for Research Papers," Dr Abel Scribe PhD, 2017, accessed April 1, 2018,

#. "Documenting Sources from the World Wide Web," Modern Language Association, February 3, 2000,
accessed February 17, 2000, http://www.mla.org/style/sources.htm.

#. "Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format," updated to 5th ed., Purdue University Online
Writing Lab, 2003, accessed February 18, 2003, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/research/r_apa.html.

#. The Turabian manual suggests a generic format for referencing websites, albeit with some confusion.
This takes the form: Author (if there is one), "Website Title," Publisher, date, access date, URL. Blogs, however,
follow this form: Author, "Blog Topic," Title of Blog in Italics, date, access date, URL. It's not clear if the reference
to the website above should have Purdue University Online Writing Lab in italics.

Computer Program

#. Luc Anselin, SPACESTAT: A Program for the Statistical Analysis of Spatial Data. Computer program
(Santa Barbara, CA: National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, University of California, 1993).